- Decreases in body mass, blood and plasma volume
- Abnormal serum electrolyte concentrations
- Decrease concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, and/or calcium
- As a result of sweating or over consumption of water during exercise
- Environmental stress
- Exercising in heat which may result in electrolyte imbalances and dehydration
Dehydration and electrolyte loss are not the sole causes of EAMC because many individuals can experience cramping when they are hydrated and supplemented with electrolytes.
A more recent theory suggests that EAMC is related to sustained neural activity that results in fatigue. This idea is supported by athletes who are more likely to experience cramps toward the end of an event. A distinction has been made between EAMC that result from fatigue and that resulting from heat (in which electrolyte and fluid losses result in a contraction of extra cellular fluid space).
In one study, participants who experienced cramps had a higher average sweat rate than those that did not experience cramps. Subjects who experienced EAMC who consumed a carbohydrate - electrolyte beverage were able to exercise 150% longer before the onset of cramps.
Other common treatments include:
- Salt tablets
- Pickle juice and mustard (anecdotal remedies)
- Saline solution use reported as early as 1898