PHED 1010 PHYSICAL FITNESS

EXERCISE, FITNESS and NUTRITION TERMS

 

 

Absolute Submaximal Workload

A set exercise load performed at any intensity from just above resting to just below maximum.

Acclimatization

The adaptive changes that occur when an individual undergoes prolonged or repeated exposure to a stressful environment; these changes reduce the physiological strain produced by such an environment.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Stored chemical energy that links the energy-yielding and energy-requiring functions within all cells.

Aerobic

In the presence of, requiring, or utilizing oxygen.

Aerobic Metabolism Pathway

Breakdown of glycogen and fats in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP.  Provides energy for low intensity activities over 2 minutes.

Aerobic Threshold

Level of activity that can be sustained for a long period of time.  Expressed as a percentage of VO2 Max.

Afterburn

Period following an exercise bout in which the resting metabolism remains elevated.

Afterload

Resistance presented to the contracting ventricle.

Agonist

Muscle primarily responsible for the movement

All-or-None Principle

When a motor neuron is stimulated, all of the muscle fibers in that motor unit contract to their fullest extent or they do not contract at all.

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstrual cycle

Amino Acids

Chief components of proteins; different arrangement of the 22 amino acids form various proteins

Anabolic Steroids

Synthetic androgens that mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone.

Anaerobic

In the absence of, not requiring, nor utilizing oxygen.

Anaerobic Glycolysis Pathway

Breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen.  Produces lactate acid and ATP.  Energy system for short term high intensity activities.  Limited by the build up of lactate acid.

Anorexia Athletica

An eating disorder occurring primarily in young, female athletes that is characterized by a food intake less than that required to support the training regimen and by body weight no more than 95% of normal.

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by marked self-induced weight loss accompanied by an intense fear of fatness and reproductive hormonal changes.

Antagonist

Muscle opposing a movement

Archimedes' Principle

The principle that a partially or fully submerged object will experience an upward buoyant force equal to the weight or the volume of fluid displaced by the object.

Arteriosclerosis

The natural aging changes that occur in blood vessels—namely thickening of the walls, loss of elastic connective tissue, and hardening of the vessel wall.

Atherosclerosis

A pathological process that results in the buildup of plaque inside the blood vessels.

ATP-CPr Pathway

Energy system that provides for brief high intensity muscular contractions.   PCr depletes within 30 seconds.

Atrophy

Condition of diminished muscle size and strength due to lack of use

Ballistic Stretching

A form of stretching, characterized by an action-reaction bouncing motion, in which the joints involved are placed into an extreme range of motion limits by fast, active contractions of agonistic muscle groups.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

The level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in the waking state, when the individual is in a fasted condition, at normal body and room temperature, and without psychological stress.

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis

Means to measure body composition.  Based on differences in electrical resistance of muscle and fat tissues.

Blood Pressure (BP)

The force exerted on the wall of the blood vessel by the blood as a result of contraction of the heart (systole) or relaxation of the heart (diastole).

Body Composition

The partitioning of body mass into fat-free mass (weight or percentage) and fat mass (weight or percentage).

Body Fat

Tissue made up of billions of cells filled with varying amounts of triglyceride.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Is a weight and height ratio. Defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder marked by an unrealistic appraisal of body weight and/or shape that is manifested by alternating bingeing and purging behavior.

Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid filled sac that lies between tissues and allows tendons, ligaments, muscles ans skin to glide smoothly over one another during activity.

Caloric Balance Equation

The mathematical summation of the caloric intake (1) and energy expenditure (–) from all sources.

Caloric Cost

Energy expenditure of an activity performed for a specified period of time. It may be expressed as total calories (kcal), calories or kjoules per minute (kcal·min–1 or kJ·min–1) or relative to body weight (kcal·kg–1·min–1 or kJ·kg–1·min–1).

Caloric Equivalent

The number of kilocalories produced per liter of oxygen consumed.

Calorimetry

The measurement of heat energy liberated or absorbed in metabolic processes.

Carbohydrate (CHO)

Major source of energy for the body.  One gram of CHO = 4 kcal

Carbohydrate Loading (Glycogen Supercompensation)

A process of nutritional modification that results in an additional storage of glycogen in muscle fiber that can be approximately three to four times the normal levels.

Cardiac Cycle

One complete sequence of contraction and relaxation of the heart.

Cardiac Output

The amount of blood pumped per unit of time, in liters per minute.

Cardio-respiratory Fitness

The ability to deliver and use oxygen under the demands of intensive, prolonged exercise or work.

Cardiovascular Drift

The changes in observed cardiovascular variables that occur during prolonged, heavy submaximal exercise without a change in workload

Cellular Respiration

The process by which cells transfer energy from food to ATP in a stepwise series of reactions; relies heavily upon the use of oxygen.

Cellulite

Slang term used to describe dimpled fat found primarily on buttocks and thighs of women.  Cellulite is body fat.

Central Cardiovascular Adaptations

Adaptations that occur in the heart and contribute to an increased ability to deliver oxygen.

Cholesterol

A derived fat that is essential for the body but may be detrimental in excessive amounts.

Complex Carbohydrates

Nutritionally dense foods (grains, rice, pasta, potatoes, fruits, and vegetables) that are rich in vitamins and minerals.  Provide steady amounts of energy.  Important source of fiber

Concentric Contraction

A muscle contraction that produces tension during shortening.

Contractility

The force of contraction of the heart. Also the ability of a muscle to respond to a stimuli by shortening.

Contraction

Initiation of tension-producing process of the contractile elements within muscle.

Contraindicated Exercises

Exercise indicated to be injurious to some people.

Cool down

Final stage of an exercise bout.  Purpose is to safely ease your body back to its resting state.

Cramp

Sharp, painful, involuntary muscle contraction.

Creatine Phosphate (CP)

Substrate present in muscle that is broken down into component parts to provide phosphates for the production of ATP

 

 

Cross Bridge Cycle

 

 

The sequence of events that are necessary for the generation of force or tension exerted by the myosin heads during muscle contraction.

Cross Training

The development or maintenance of cardiovascular fitness by alternating between or concurrently training in two or more modalities.

Crucifera

Vegetables that are members of the mustard family (broccoli, cabbage) that contain powerful phytochemicals that help prevent certain cancers.

Cutting

Decreasing body fat and body water content to very low levels in order to increase muscle definition.

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)

Muscle soreness that increases in intensity for the first 24 hr after activity, peaks from 24 to 28 hr, and then declines during the next 5 to 7 days.

Diet

(a) The food regularly consumed during the course of normal living; (b) a restriction of caloric intake.

Diffusion

The tendency of gaseous, liquid, or solid molecules to move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration by constant random action.

Diastolic Blood Pressure

The resting blood pressure and is the force of blood against the artery wall when the heart relaxes between beats.

Dynamic Contraction

A muscle contraction in which the force exerted varies as the muscle shortens to accommodate change in muscle length and/or joint angle throughout the range of motion while moving a constant external load.

Dynamic Flexibility

Range of motion achieved by quickly moving a limb to its limits.

Dyspnea

Labored or difficult breathing.

Eccentric Contraction

Muscle contraction that produces tension while lengthening.

Ejection Fraction (EF)

The percentage of LVEDV that is ejected from the heart.

Elasticity

The ability of a muscle to return to resting length after being stretched.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A tracing of the electrical currents involved in the cycles of the heartbeat.

Electrolytes

Chemicals such as calcium, potassium, or sodium, dissolved in blood or cellular foods that act as a vital messenger for many bodily processes.  Dehydration and certain drugs can disrupt electrolyte balance.

Electron Transport System (ETS)

The final metabolic pathway; it proceeds as a series of chemical reactions in the mitochondria that transfer electrons from the hydrogen atom carriers NAD and FAD to oxygen; water is formed as a by-product; the electrochemical energy released by the hydrogen ions is coupled to the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi.

Endorphins

Pain-relieving chemicals produced by the brain.

Energy System Capacity

The total amount of energy that can be produced by an energy system.

Energy System Power

The maximal amount of energy that can be produced per unit of time.

Entrainment

The synchronization of limb movement and breathing frequency that accompanies rhythmical exercise.

Enzyme

A protein that accelerates the speed of a chemical reaction without itself being changed by the reaction.

Essential Fat

Body fat required for normal functioning.

Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

Oxygen consumption during recovery that is above normal resting values.

Excitation Contraction Coupling

The sequence of events by which an action potential in the sarcolemma initiates the sliding of the myofilaments, resulting in contraction.

Exercise

A single acute bout of bodily exertion or muscular activity that requires an expenditure of energy above resting level and that in most, but not all, cases results in voluntary movement.

Exercise Addiction

Chronic loss of perspective of the role of exercise in a full life.

Exercise Modality or Mode

The type of activity or sport; usually classified by energy demand or type of muscle action.

Exercise Physiology

A basic and an applied science that describes, explains, and uses the body's response to exercise and adaptation to exercise training to maximize human physical potential.

Exercise Response

The pattern of homeostatic disruption or change exhibited by physiological variables during a single acute bout of physical exertion.

Extensibility

The ability of a muscle to be stretched or lengthened.

External Respiration

The exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.

Fartlek Workout

A type of training session, named from the Swedish word meaning "speed play," that combines the aerobic demands of a continuous run with the anaerobic demands of sporadic speed intervals.

Fast Glycolytic (FG)Fibers

Fast-twitch muscle fibers that perform primarily under glycolytic conditions.

Fast Oxidative Glycolytic (FOG) Fibers

Fast-twitch muscle fibers that have the ability to work under oxidative and glycolytic conditions.

Fat

Macro-nutrient used for tissue repair, insulation, transport vitamins, and a souce of energy.  One gram of fat= 9 kcal.

Fat Cells (Adipose Cells)

Storage sites for energy.

Fat-Free Weight

The weight of body tissue excluding extractable fat.

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins stored in the fatty tissues of the body.  Vitamins A, D, E, K.

Fatigue Index (FI)

Percentage of peak power drop-off during high-intensity, short-duration work.

Fiber

Part of plant not digested in the small intestine.  It helps the movement of solid waste through the digestive track.

Field Test

A test that can be conducted anywhere; is performance-based and estimates the values measured by the criterion test.

First Law of Thermodynamics or the Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but only changed in form.

FITT Prescription Factors

Cardio-respiratory exercise recommendations based on frequency, intensity, time, and type.

Flexibility

The range of motion in a joint or series of joints that reflects the ability of the musculotendon structures to elongate within the physical limits of the joint.

Food Efficiency

An index of the amount of calories an individual needs to ingest in order to maintain a given weight or percent body fat.

Gluconeogenesis

The creation of glucose in the liver from noncarbohydrate sources, particularly glycerol, lactate or pyruvate, and alanine.

Glucostatic Theory

Theory about hunger regulation that suggests that blood glucose levels determine whether one is hungry or satiated through the exhaustion of liver glycogen.

Glycemic Index

A measure that compares the elevation in blood glucose caused by the ingestion of 50 g of any carbohydrate food with the elevation caused by the ingestion of 50 g of white bread.

Glycogen

Stored form of carbohydrate composed of chains of glucose molecules chemically linked together.  Stored in muscle and liver.

Glycogenolysis

The process by which stored glycogen is broken down (hydrolyzed) to provide glucose.

Glycolysis

The energy pathway responsible for the initial catabolism of glucose in a 10- or 11-step process that begins with glucose or glycogen and ends with the production of pyruvate (aerobic glycolysis) or lactate (anaerobic glycolysis).

Graded Exercise Test  (Stress Test)

Test designed to monitor the electrical activity of the heart.

Health-Related Physical Fitness

That portion of physical fitness directed toward the prevention of or rehabilitation from disease as well as the development of a high level of functional capacity for the necessary and discretionary life tasks.

Heart Rate (HR)

The number of cardiac cycles per minute, expressed as beats per min (b·min–1).

Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)

Difference between your maximal and resting heart rate.

 

Heat Illness

 

A spectrum of disorders that range in intensity and severity from mild cardiovascular and central nervous system disruptions to severe cell damage.

Heat Stress Index

A scale used to determine the risk of heat stress from measures of ambient temperature and relative humidity.

Hemodilution

á in plasma volume that exceeds total hemoglobin produced

Hemoglobin (Hb)

The protein portion of the red blood cell that binds with oxygen, consisting of four iron-containing pigments called hemes and a protein called globin.

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

A lipoprotein in blood plasma composed primarily of protein and a minimum of cholesterol or triglyceride whose purpose is to transport cholesterol from the tissues to the liver.

Hormone

Chemical substance originating in glandular tissue (or cells) that is transported through bodily fluids to a target cell to influence its physiological activity.

Hydrogenation

Manufacturing process in which hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fats, making them more saturated.

Hydrolysis

A chemical process in which a substance is split into simpler compounds by the addition of water.

Hydrostatic Weighing

Criterion measure for determining body composition through the calculation of body density.

Hyperplasia

Growth in a tissue or organ through an increase in the number of cells.

Hypertension

High blood pressure, defined as values equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg.

Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle size due to the enlargement of existing muscle fibers.

Hyperventilation

Increased pulmonary ventilation, especially ventilation that exceeds metabolic requirements; carbon dioxide is blown off, leading to a decrease in its partial pressure in arterial blood.

Hypokinetic Diseases

Diseases caused by and/or associated with lack of physical activity.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Inflammation of the long tendon that begins in the buttocks, runs down the outside of the thigh, and attaches below the knee.

Immune System

A precisely ordered system of cells, hormones, and chemicals that regulate susceptibility to, severity of, and recovery from infection and illness.

Insoluble Fiber

Absorbs water as it passes through the digestive track, increasing fecal bulk.

Internal Respiration

The exchange of gases at the cellular level.

 

 

Interval Training

 

 

An aerobic and/or anaerobic workout that consists of three elements: a selected work interval (usually a distance), a target time for that distance, and a predetermined recovery period before the next repetition of the work interval.

Irritability

The ability of a muscle to receive and respond to stimuli.

Isokinematic Contraction

A muscle contraction in which the rate of limb displacement or joint rotation is held constant with the use of specialized equipment.

Isokinetic Contraction

A muscle fiber contraction in which the velocity of the contraction is kept constant.

Isometric Contraction

A muscle fiber contraction that does not result in a length change in muscle fiber.

Isotonic Contraction

A muscle fiber contraction in which the tension generated by the muscle is constant through the range of motion.

Karvonen Equation

Used to determine target heart rates (THR).  THR=MAXHR-RHR X Intensity Percent + RHR

Ketone Bodies

Toxic waste product that builds up in the body if fats or protein are burned for energy in the absence of carbohydrates.

Kilocalorie

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C.

Krebs Cycle

A series of eight chemical reactions that begins and ends with the same substance; energy is liberated for direct substrate phosphorylation of ATP from ADP and Pi; carbon dioxide is formed and hydrogen atoms removed and carried by NAD and FAD to the electron transport system; does not directly utilize oxygen but requires its presence.

Lactic Acid

A by-product of glycogen metabolism that also transports energy from muscle to muscle and muscle to liver; high levels in the blood poison the contractile apparatus and inhibit enzyme activity.

Lactate Thresholds

Points on the linear-curvilinear continuum of lactate accumulation that appear to indicate sharp rises, often labeled as the first (LT1) and second (LT2) lactate threshold.  Upper limit of sustainable aerobic activity.  Point just before Anaerobic Glycolysis pathway take over.

Lean Body Mass

Muscle mass

Left Ventricular End–Diastolic Volume (LVEDV)

The volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.

Left Ventricular End–Systolic Volume (LVESV)

The volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Ligament

Fibrous connective tissue that binds bones together to form a joint

Lipoprotein

Water-soluble compound composed of apolipoprotein and lipid components that transport fat in the bloodstream.

Lipostatic theory  (Fat-Cell Theory)

Theory about hunger control that suggests that the size of fat stores signal us to eat.

Load

Force exerted on the muscle by an object.

Long Slow Distance (LSD) Workout

A continuous aerobic training session performed at a steady-state pace for an extended time or distance.

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)

A lipoprotein in blood plasma composed of protein, a small portion of triglyceride, and a large portion of cholesterol whose purpose is to transport cholesterol to the cells.

Maximal Exercise

The highest intensity, greatest load, or longest duration exercise of which an individual is capable.

Maximal Heart Rate (MHR)

Highest possible heart rate. Estimated by 220-age.

Maximal Lactate Steady State

The highest workload that can be maintained over time without a continual rise in blood lactate; it indicates an exercise intensity above which lactate production exceeds clearance.

Maximal Oxygen Consumption (V.O2max)

The highest amount of oxygen an individual can take in and utilize to produce ATP aerobically while breathing air during heavy exercise.

Maximal Voluntary Contraction

The maximal force (100%) that a muscle can exert.

MET

A unit that represents the metabolic equivalent in multiples of the resting rate of oxygen consumption of any given activity.

Metabolic Pathway

A sequence of enzyme-mediated chemical reactions resulting in a specified product.

Metabolism

The total of all energy transformations that occur in the body.

Minerals

Elements not of animal or plant origin which are essential constituents of all cells and of many functions in the body.

Mitochondria

Cell organelles in which the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation take place.

Monounsaturated Fats

Fatty acids shown to have positive effect on cholesterol levels.  (Olive oil, canola oil)

Motor Unit

A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates.

Muscle Sprain

 

Muscle tonus

Astate of low-level muscle contraction at rest.

Muscular Endurance

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeatedly exert force against a resistance.

Muscular Strength

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert maximal force against a resistance in a single repetition.

Myclonus

A twitching or spasm in the muscle group that is maximally stretched.

Myofibril

Contractile structures composed of myofilaments.

Myofilaments

Contractile (thick and thin) proteins that are responsible for muscle contraction.

Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise

A movement performed in which the body weight is supported or suspended and thereby not working against the pull of gravity.

Norepinephrine

Neurotransmitter than influences nervous system activities such as increases blood pressure, constricts blood vessels.

Osteoporosis

A condition of porosity and decreased bone mineral density that is defined as a BMD greater than 2.5 standard deviations (SD) below values for young, normal adults.

Overpronation

Condition in which the foot rolls inward excessively upon contact with the ground.

Overtraining

A state of overstress or failure to adapt to an exercise training load.

Overtraining Syndrome (OTS)

A state of chronic decrement in performance and ability to train in which restoration may take several weeks, months or even years.

Oxidation

A gain of oxygen, a loss of hydrogen, or the direct loss or electrons by an atom or substance.

Oxygen Consumption (V.O2)

The amount of oxygen taken up, transported, and used at the cellular level.

Oxygen Debt

Postexercise oxygen intake that exceeds resting requirements; used to replace the oxygen deficit incurred during exercise.

Oxygen Deficit

The difference between the oxygen required during exercise and the oxygen supplied and utilized. Occurs at the onset of all activity.

Oxygen Drift

A situation that occurs in submaximal activity of long duration, or above 70% V.O2max, or in hot and humid conditions where the oxygen consumption increases, despite the fact that the oxygen requirement of the activity has not changed.

Oxygen-transport system

 

Patellofemoral Syndrome

Pain and stiffness around and under the knee cap (patella).

Peak Power (PP)

The maximum power (force times distance divided by time) exerted during very short (5 sec or less) duration work.

Perfusion of the Lung

Pulmonary circulation, especially capillary blood flow.

Periodization

Plans for training based on a manipulation of the fitness components with the intent of peaking the athlete for the competitive season or varying health-related fitness training in cycles of harder or easier training.

Peripheral Cardiovascular Adaptations

Adaptations that occur in the vasculature or the muscles that contribute to an increased ability to extract oxygen.

 

 

Physical Fitness

 

 

A physiological state of well-being that provides the foundation for the tasks of daily living, a degree of protection against hypokinetic disease, and for participation in sport.

Physical Inactivity

Term to identify people who do not get  the recommended level of regular physical activity.  AHA recommends 30-60 minutes of aerobic exercise 3-4 times per week.

Plantar Fasciitis

Inflammation of the thick band of connective tissue on the undersurface of the foot.

Plasticity

Inability of connective tissue to return to its original form

Polyunsaturated fats

Fatty acids with reduce hydrogen atoms.  Corn oil, Soybean oil,

Power

The amount of work done per unit of time; the product of force and velocity; the ability to exert force quickly.

Preload

Volume of blood returned to the heart.

Pressor Response

The rapid increase in systolic pressure and diastolic pressure during static exercise.

P.R.I.C.E.

Protect,  Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation protocol for overuse injuries.

Progressive Overload

Gradual increase in physical activity in order to stress a muscle or body system.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

A stretching technique in which the muscle to be stretched is first contracted maximally. The muscle is then relaxed and is either actively stretched by contraction of the opposing muscle or is passively stretched.

Protein

Macro-nutrient that builds and repairs tissue, maintains chemical balance, regulates formation of hormones and a source of energy.  One gram of protein = 4 kcal.

Pulmonary Ventilation

The process by which air is moved into the lungs.

Purinegic Theory

Theory about hunger that suggests that the circulating levels of purines (molecules found in DNA and RNA) govern hunger.

Rating of Perceived Exertion

A subjective impression of overall physical effort, strain and fatigue during acute exercise.

Reciprocal Inhibition

The reflex relaxation of the antagonist muscle in response to the contraction of the agonist.

Reflex

Rapid, involuntary response to a stimuli in which a specific stimulus results in a specific motor response.

Relative Humidity

The moisture in the air relative to how much moisture, or water vapor, can be held by the air at any given ambient temperature.

Relative Submaximal Workload

A workload above resting but below maximum that is prorated to each individual; typically set as some percentage of maximum.

Repetition

(REP) Performing an exercise one time.

Repetition Maximun

(1 REP MAX) Heaviest weight you can lift once with correct form.

Residual Volume (RV)

The amount of air left in the lungs following a maximal exhalation.

Resistance Training

A systematic program of exercises involving the exertion of force against a load used to develop strength, endurance, and/or hypertrophy of the muscular system.

Resistance Vessels

Another name for arterioles due to their ability to vasodilate and vasoconstrict; changing diameter allows them to control the flow of blood.

Resistance

The factors that oppose air or blood flow.

Respiratory Cycle

Inspiration and expiration.

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

The energy expended while an individual is resting quietly in a supine position.

Risk Factor

An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or an inherited characteristic that has been shown by epidemiological evidence to predispose an individual to the development of a specific disease.

Sarcomere

The functional (contractile unit) of muscle fibers

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

The specialized muscle cell organelle that stores calcium

SAID Training

Kind of demand placed upon the body will control the training adaptation that will follow.

Satiety

A state of no longer having the desire to eat.

Saturated Fats

Fat acids in which hydrogen atoms are attached to every carbon.  Animal fats

Sciatica

Pain along the course of the great sciatic nerve.  (hip, thigh, leg, foot)

Self-Esteem

The regard you hold for yourself, the value you place on yourself.

Set

Group of several repetitions of an exercise

Set Point

Fat amount or weight level that the body physiologically works to maintain.

Shin Splints

Painful condition involving the anterior tibialus muscle.

Side Stitch

Pain on the side of the body during exercise.  Diaphragm spasm, poor conditioning, inadequate warm up, shallow breathing are all possible causes.

Simple Carbohydrates

Sugars that provide energy, but lack nutritional value.  Sucrose, Fructose, Honey, Corn Syrup all examples.

Skinfold Measurements

The double thickness of skin plus the adipose tissue between the parallel layers of skin.  Based on the proportion of subcutaneous fat and visceral fat.

Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction

The theory that explains muscle contraction as the result of the myofilaments sliding over one another.

Slow Oxidative (SO) Fibers

Slow-twitch muscle fibers that rely primarily on oxidative metabolism to produce energy.

Soluble Fiber

Travels through the digestive tract in a gel-like form, pacing the absorption of carbohydrates

Specificity (Neuromuscular or Energy System)

Only the muscle or the body system being exercised will show beneficial change

Spirometry

An indirect calorimetry method for estimating heat production or calorimetry in which expired air is measured and analyzed for the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced.

Sport-Specific Physical Fitness

That portion of physical fitness which is directed toward optimizing athletic performance.

Sports Anemia

A transient decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin levels (grams per deciliter of blood).

Sprain

Partial or complete tear of a ligament

Static Contraction

A muscle contraction that produces an increase in muscle tension but does not cause meaningful limb displacement or joint displacement and therefore does not result in movement of the skeleton.

Static Stretching

A form of stretching in which the muscle to be stretched is slowly put into a position of controlled maximal or near-maximal stretch by contraction of the opposing muscle group and held for 30–60 sec.

Steady State

A condition in which the energy expenditure provided during exercise is balanced with the energy required to perform that exercise and factors responsible for the provision of this energy reach elevated levels of equilibrium.

Storage Fat

Extra fat that accumulates in adipose cells around internal organ and beneath the skin.

Strain

Partial or complete tear of muscle fibers or tendons.

Stress

The state manifested by the specific syndrome that consists of all the nonspecifically induced changes within a biological system; a disruption in body homeostasis and all attempts by the body to regain homeostasis.

Stress Fracture

A fine hairline break in bone that occurs in the absence of acute trauma, is clinically symptomatic, and is detectable by X rays or bone scans.

Stretch Reflex

Reflex tightening of a muscle when it is quickly stretched.  Protect it from injury.

Stroke Volume (SV)

Amount of blood ejected from the ventricles with each beat of the heart.

Subcutaneous Tissue

Tissue (fat) that lies beneath the skin.

 

Supramaximal Exercise

 

An exercise bout in which the energy requirement is greater than that which can be supplied aerobically at VO2max.

Systolic Blood Pressure

Pumping pressure of the blood as it pushes the blood out of the heart.

Target Heart Rate (THR)

Recommended intensity level for cardio-respiratory exercise.  Level need to assure adequate stimulation of the cardio-respiratory system.

Thermic Effect of a Meal (TEM)

The increased heat production as a result of food ingestion.

Thermogenesis

The production of heat.

Tidal Volume (VT)

The amount of air that is inspired or expired in a normal breath.

Tendonitis

Inflammation of the tendon from repeated stress.

Tendons

Fibrous cords that connect muscle tissue to bone.

Testosterone

Hormone responsible for the physical characteristics of a male

Torque

The capability of a force to produce rotation.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

The greatest amount of air that the lungs can contain.

Training

A consistent or chronic progression of exercise sessions designed to improve physiological function for better health or sport performance.

Training Adaptations or Effect

Physiological changes or adjustments resulting from an exercise training program that promote optimal functioning.

Training Principles

Fundamental guidelines that form the basis for the development of an exercise training program.

Training Taper

A reduction in training prior to important competitions that is intended to allow the athlete to recover from previous hard training, maintain physiological conditioning, and improve performance.

Training Volume

The total amount of work done, usually expressed as mileage or load.

Trans-fatty Acids

Fat found in processed foods.  During hydrogenation, fatty acid molecules become rearranged into transfats.  Shown to be a contributor to coronary heart disease.

Transverse Tubules

Organelles that carry the electrical signal from the sarcolemma into the interior of the cell.

Triglycerides

Free fatty acids.

Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP)

Characterized by hard-driving competitiveness; time urgency, haste, and impatience; workaholic and hostility.

Type B Behavior Pattern (TBBP)

Behavior associated with characteristics of relaxation without guilt and no sense of time urgency.

Valsalva Maneuver

Breath-holding that involves closing of the glottis and contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal musculature.

Velocity at V.O2max

The speed at which an individual can run when working at his or her maximal oxygen consumption; based both on submaximal running economy and V.O2max.

Vital Capacity (VC)

The greatest amount of air that can be exhaled following a maximal inhalation.

Vitamins

Organic substances of plant or animal origin which are essential for normal growth, development, metabolic processes, and energy transformations.

Voluntary Dehydration

Exercise-induced dehydration that develops despite an individual's access to unlimited water.

Warm-up

Preparing the body both physically and mentally for exercise.

Water Soluble Vitamins

Remain in body tissues a short time.  Excess excreted out of body.

Weight Cycling

Repeated bouts of weight loss and regain.

Weight-Bearing Exercise

A movement performed in which the body weight is supported by muscles and bones.

Wellness

Integrated and dynamic level of functioning orientated toward maximizing potential, dependent on self-responsibility.

 




:: برچسب‌ها: دیکشنری
ن : بهنام پارسا
ت : جمعه ٢٥ آذر ۱۳٩٠
نظرات ()
 
جهت اطلاع از تنظیمات و ویــــرایش این قالب اینجا را کلیک کنید.

.:: کلیک کنید ::.